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OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL
 
The article added time:2009-11-30 | Click article:2913
 

欧洲议会和欧盟理事会第2005/32/EC号指令
200576
为规定用能产品的生态设计要求建立框架
DIRECTIVE 2005/32/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL
of 6 July 2005
establishing a framework for the setting of ecodesign requirements for energy-using products
通用生态设计要求设计方法
1部分 EuPs的生态设计参数
1.1. 就产品的生命周期而言,确定如下几个阶段与产品设计相关的重要环境因素:
(a) 原料的选择和使用;
(b) 制造; dessert;desert; compose of ; consist in
(c) 包装、运输和配送;
(d) 安装与维护;
(e) 使用;
(f) 生命终点,意指一件EuP在其最终处置时已经达到其首次使用的终点。
1.2. 对于每个阶段,需评估如下相关的环境因素:
(a) 预期的材料、能源和诸如淡水这样的其它资源的消耗;
(b) 预计向空气、水和土壤的排放水平;
(c) 预期的诸如噪声、辐射和电磁场这种物理效应造成的污染;
(d) 预计产生的废料;
(e) 考虑到第2002/96/EC号指令,原料和/或能量的回收、循环使用和更新的可能性。
1.3. 为了改善前款提到的环境因素的评估,只要适当,可以特别用到下列参数,必要时,可由其它参数予以补充:
(a) 产品的重量和体积;
(b) 来自回收活动中的原料的使用情况;
(c) 贯穿整个生命周期中能源、水和其他资源的消耗;
(d) 根据1967年6月27关于与危险物质分类、包装和标签的法律、法规和行政规定一致化的第67/548/EEC号理事会指令划分为对健康和/或环境造成危害的物质的使用情况1,并考虑关于具体物质上市和使用的立法,诸如第76/769/EEC号指令或第2002/95/EC号指令;
(e) 为正常使用所需耗材的数量和性质;
(f) 用以下方式表示的可重复使用和回收的容易程度:使用的材料和部件的数量,标准部件的使用,拆解所需的时间,拆解所需工具的复杂程度,在确定可重复使用和回收的部件和材料时部件和材料编码标准的使用(包括根据ISO标准对塑料零件的标识),易回收物质的使用,易于获得昂贵的和其它可回收的部件和材料;易于获得包含危险物质的部件和材料;
(g) 二手部件的整合;
(h) 避免损害部件和整机重复使用和循环使用的的技术解决方案;
(i) 按如下方式延长寿命:最小保证寿命,备件可使用的最短时间,模块化,可升级性,可维修性;
(j) 产生的废物和有害废物的数量;
(k) 在不违背1997年12月16日关于各成员国与限制安装在非路用移动机械的内燃机排放气体和颗粒物的法律一致化的第97/68/EC号欧洲议会和欧盟理事会指令2的情况下对空气的排放(温室气体,酸性物质,易爆有机物,耗臭氧物质,永久有机污染物,重金属,微小颗粒和悬浮物);
(l) 对水中的排放(重金属,对氧平衡有负面影响的物质,永久有机污染物);
(m) 对土壤中的排放(特别是在产品使用过程中有害物质的泄漏和溢出,当作为废物处置时过滤出的潜力)。
Method for setting generic Eco-design requirements
Part 1. Ecodesign parameters for EuPs
1.1. In so far as they relate to product design, significant environmental aspects are identified with reference to the
following phases of the life cycle of the product:
(a) raw material selection and use;
(b) manufacturing;
(c) packaging, transport, and distribution;
(d) installation and maintenance;
(e) use;
(f) end-of-life, meaning the state of an EuP having reached the end of its first use until its final disposal.
1.2. For each phase, the following environmental aspects are to be assessed where relevant:
(a) predicted consumption of materials, of energy and of other resources such as fresh water;
(b) anticipated emissions to air, water or soil;
(c) anticipated pollution through physical effects such as noise, vibration, radiation, electromagnetic fields;
(d) expected generation of waste material;
(e) possibilities for reuse, recycling and recovery of materials and/or of energy, taking into account Directive 2002/96/EC.
1.3. In particular, the following parameters will be used, as appropriate, and supplemented by others, where
necessary, for evaluating the potential for improving the environmental aspects mentioned in the previous
paragraph:
(a) weight and volume of the product;
(b) use of materials issued from recycling activities;
(c) consumption of energy, water and other resources throughout the life cycle;
(d) use of substances classified as hazardous to health and/or the environment according to Council Directive
67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions
relating to the classification, packing and labelling of dangerous substances (1) and taking into account
legislation on the marketing and use of specific substances, such as Directives 76/769/EEC or 2002/95/EC;
(e) quantity and nature of consumables needed for proper use and maintenance;
(f) ease for reuse and recycling as expressed through: number of materials and components used, use of
standard components, time necessary for disassembly, complexity of tools necessary for disassembly, use
of component and material coding standards for the identification of components and materials suitable
for reuse and recycling (including marking of plastic parts in accordance with ISO standards), use of easily
recyclable materials, easy access to valuable and other recyclable components and materials; easy access to
components and materials containing hazardous substances;
(g) incorporation of used components;
(h) avoidance of technical solutions detrimental to reuse and recycling of components and whole appliances;
(i) extension of lifetime as expressed through: minimum guaranteed lifetime, minimum time for availability
of spare parts, modularity, upgradeability, reparability;
(j) amounts of waste generated and amounts of hazardous waste generated;
(k) emissions to air (greenhouse gases, acidifying agents, volatile organic compounds, ozone depleting
substances, persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, fine particulate and suspended particulate matter)
without prejudice to Directive 97/68/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December
1997 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to measures against the emission of
gaseous and particulate pollutants from internal combustion engines to be installed in non-road mobile
machinery (1);
(l) emissions to water (heavy metals, substances with an adverse effect on the oxygen balance, persistent
organic pollutants);
(m) emissions to soil (especially leakage and spills of dangerous substances during the use phase of the
product, and the potential for leaching upon its disposal as waste).
2部分与信息提供有关的要求
各项实施措施可能会要求制造商提供除制造商以外对EuP的操作、使用或回收有影响的其它各方的信息。只要可行,这些信息应包括:
― 从设计者那里得到的关于制造过程的信息;
― 当产品投放市场时,与之相伴的就产品的重要环境特性和性能向消费者提供的信息,这些信息使消费者能够对产品的各个方面做出比较;
― 向消费者提供为了减少产品对环境的影响并确保最佳预期寿命,如何安装、使用和维护产品的信息,同时提供在产品生命周期终了如何回收的信息,以及适当时零件可供使用的期间和产品升级换代可能性的信息;
― 关于在产品生命周期终结时分解、回收或处置的处理设施的信息。
只要可能,应当随产品本身提供这样的信息。
这些信息应考虑到在其他共同体立法下的义务,诸如第2002/96/EC号指令。
Part 2. Requirements relating to the supply of information
Implementing measures may require information to be supplied by the manufacturer that may influence the way the
EuP is handled, used or recycled by parties other than the manufacturer. This information may include, where
applicable:
— information from the designer relating to the manufacturing process;
— information for consumers on the significant environmental characteristics and performance of a product,
accompanying the product when it is placed on the market to allow consumers to compare these aspects of the
products;
— information for consumers on how to install, use and maintain the product in order to minimise its impact on
the environment and to ensure optimal life expectancy, as well as on how to return the product at end-of-life,
and, where appropriate, information on the period of availability of spare parts and the possibilities of
upgrading products;
— information for treatment facilities concerning disassembly, recycling, or disposal at end-of-life.
Information should be given on the product itself wherever possible.
This information will take into account obligations under other Community legislation, such as Directive 2002/96/EC.
3部分对制造商的要求
1.在产品设计的流程中以务实的态度来确定影响实施措施的环境因素,EuPs的制造商会被要求基于正常操作条件和使用目的的现实性假设,对贯穿整个生命周期中的EuP模型进行评估。其他环境因素可在自愿的基础上进行核查。
制造商在评估的基础上建立EuP的生态学档案。这些档案基于贯穿产品生命周期的、以可计量物理量表示的与环境相关的产品特性。
2.制造商将利用这些评估来评价其他的可选设计方案和与参考基准相比已获得的产品的环境性能。
参考标准将由委员会基于在措施准备过程收集的信息,在实施措施中予以确定。
在遵守所有相关法规时,具体设计方案的选择,应在各种环境因素之间、环境因素与其他考虑之间达到合理的平衡,诸如安全性与健康、对功能、质量和性能的技术要求,以及包括制造成本和可销售性在内的经济因素。
Part 3. Requirements for the manufacturer
1. Addressing the environmental aspects identified in the implementing measure as capable of being influenced in
a substantial manner through product design, manufacturers of EuPs will be required to perform an assessment
of the EuP model throughout its lifecycle, based upon realistic assumptions about normal conditions and
purposes of use. Other environmental aspects may be examined on a voluntary basis.
On the basis of this assessment manufacturers will establish the EuP's ecological profile. It will be based on
environmentally relevant product characteristics and inputs/outputs throughout the product life cycle expressed
in physical quantities that can be measured.
2. Manufacturers will make use of this assessment to evaluate alternative design solutions and the achieved
environmental performance of the product against benchmarks.
The benchmarks will be identified by the Commission in the implementing measure on the basis of information
gathered during the preparation of the measure.
The choice of a specific design solution will achieve a reasonable balance between the various environmental
aspects and between environmental aspects and other relevant considerations, such as safety and health,
technical requirements for functionality, quality, and performance, and economic aspects, including
manufacturing costs and marketability, while complying with all relevant legislation.
特殊生态设计要求的方法
1.一项技术、环境和经济分析要自市场上选择大量所论EuP的代表性型号,并确定用于改善产品环境性能的技术选项,着眼于选项的经济生长力并避免任何对消费者而言重大的性能损失或有用性的损失。
对于研究中的环境因素而言,技术、环境和经济分析还应确定市场上可提供的最佳产品和技术。
在分析以及设定要求的过程中,应该考虑可投放国际市场的产品的性能和其他国家立法中设定的基准。
基于此项分析并考虑到经济、技术可行性以及改善的潜力,以使产品环境影响最小化为目的采取具体措施。
考虑到对其他环境因素的重要性,关于使用中的能耗,应设定能效水平或能耗水平,旨在使代表性型号EuP终端用户的生命周期成本最小化。生命周期成本分析法以欧洲中央银行提供的数据为基础,采用实际折扣率和EuP的实际寿命;该方法基于买价的变分和(来自工业成本的变分)与运行费用的变分和,它们来自于不同水平的技术选项,并扣抵所论代表性型号EuP的寿命。运行费用主要涵盖能耗和其它资源(如水或清洁剂)的附加费用。
应该进行涵盖相关因素(诸如能源或其他资源的价格,原料成本或生产成本,折扣率) 和适当时的外部环境成本、包括避免温室气体排放的灵敏度分析,以检查是否有重大变化以及全面结论是否可靠。要求也会做相应地调整。
类似的方法学可用于其他资源,如水资源。
2.为了发展技术、环境和经济分析,也可使用在共同体其他框架下的活动中获得的信息。
这种方式也可用于来自世界各地对与EU经济伙伴交易的EuPs设定生态设计要求的现行项目中的信息。
3.要求的生效日期应考虑产品周期的重新设计。
Method for setting specific ecodesign requirements
1. A technical, environmental and economic analysis will select a number of representative models of the EuP in
question on the market and identify the technical options for improving the environmental performance of the
product, keeping sight of the economic viability of the options and avoiding any significant loss of performance
or of usefulness for consumers.
The technical, environmental and economic analysis will also identify, for the environmental aspects under
consideration, the best-performing products and technology available on the market.
The performance of products available on international markets and benchmarks set in other countries'
legislation should be taken into consideration during the analysis as well as when setting requirements.
On the basis of this analysis and taking into account economic and technical feasibility as well as potential for
improvement, concrete measures are taken with a view to minimising the product's environmental impact.
Concerning energy consumption in use, the level of energy efficiency or consumption will be set aiming at the
life-cycle cost minimum to end-users for representative EuP models, taking into account the consequences on
other environmental aspects. The life-cycle cost analysis method uses a real discount rate on the basis of data
provided from the European Central Bank and a realistic lifetime for the EuP; it is based on the sum of the
variations in purchase price (resulting from the variations in industrial costs) and in operating expenses, which
result from the different levels of technical improvement options, discounted over the lifetime of the
representative EuP models considered. The operating expenses cover primarily energy consumption and
additional expenses in other resources (such as water or detergent).
A sensitivity analysis covering the relevant factors (such as the price of energy or other resource, the cost of raw
materials or production costs, discount rates) and, where appropriate, external environmental costs, including
avoided greenhouse gas emissions, will be carried out to check if there are significant changes and if the overall
cAnclusions are reliable. The requirement will be adapted accordingly.
A similar methodology could be applied to other resources such as water.
2. For the development of the technical, environmental and economic analyses, information available in the
framework of other Community activities could be used.
The same applies for information available from existing programmes applied in other parts of the world for
setting the specific ecodesign requirement of EuPs traded with the EU's economic partners.
3. The date of entry into force of the requirement will take the redesign cycle for the product into account.
合格声明
欧共体的合格声明必须包括以下要素:
1.制造商或其授权代表的名称和地址;
2.足以用于明确鉴定的模型描述;
3.如适当,所参考采用的协调标准;
4.如适当,所用的其它技术标准和规范;
5.如适当,为加贴适用的CE标志所参考的其他欧共体法律。
6.制造商或其授权代表的约定授权人的签识。
Declaration of conformity
The EC declaration of conformity must contain the following elements:
1. the name and address of the manufacturer or of its authorised representative;
2. a description of the model sufficient for unambiguous identification;
3. where appropriate, the references of the harmonised standards applied;
4. where appropriate, the other technical standards and specifications used;
5. where appropriate, the reference to other Community legislation providing for the affixing of the CE mark that
is applied;
6. identification and signature of the person empowered to bind the manufacturer or its authorized representative.

 
 
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